The following draws from evidence in Irin, 01/10/15, given by officials who work with former Boko Haram members:
-Kasali Yusuf, coordinator of the joint ONSA/prison service team in Kuje in Nigeria.
-Dr Wahaab Akorede, psychologist and prison officer in Nigeria.
-Ferdinand Ikwang, head of the national de-rad programme (under the Office of the National Security Adviser) in Nigeria.
Origins: exclusion and violence
No evidence of deep religiosity.
No opportunity: lack of jobs.
No health service.
Boko Haram offers:
Money (through links with jihadists in Algeria and Mali)
Inclusion into a group.
“here’s a man that is not happy within himself. He has not been given an opportunity to be educated. He has no future. If you give him 10,000 naira [$50], he will carry that bomb.”
“polygamous families where wives compete for their husband’s affection to the detriment of the children; an Islam, as traditionally taught in the north, that leaves young men ill-prepared for the modern workplace; and the callousness of successive governments that has consigned so many to suffering and an early death, “to the point where God must be tired of seeing Nigerians.”
Jobs in government programmes.
Inclusion in the wider community.
“If you’re returning say 400 ex-combatants to the community, you have to engage the community. If it’s 400 [ex-Boko Haram] in, then you need to find places for 400 local youths in government programmes, otherwise the host community will scream and say they are going to kill them.”